Since red blood cells is one of the targets of oxygen active forms, it is reasonable to study the processes of oxidative modification of erythrocyte proteins under conditions of pathology, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diseases of hematological character.
The materials for the study were erythrocytes of healthy people and patients with ischemic heart disease II and III functional classes, dilated cardiomyopathy, erythraemia patients with grade I and aplastic anemia. In each group of patients male to female ratio was approximately the same. Duration of disease with ischemic heart disease (CHD) was an average of 4.7 years, patients with dilated cardiomyopathy – 3,8 years, with erythraemia – 2,5 years, with aplastic anemia – 1,5 years. The criterion for exclusion from the study were severe hypertension, pulmonary decompensation of heart failure, presence of severe arrhythmias. The blood samples of patients were taken at their admission to hospital, before treatment.
Hemolysis of erythrocytes was performed by the method of Drabkin. The content of the products of oxidative modification of proteins (OMP) was determined by spectrophotometric method at 356 nm, 370 nm, 430 nm and 530 nm.
It has been shown that in erythrocytes of healthy individuals and patients with cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, aplastic anaemia and erythraemia revealed the presence of ketone and aldehyde products of oxidative modification of proteins basic and neutral character. All surveyed groups indicated a higher content in the erythrocytes aldehyde and ketone products of neutral character, the lowest content displayed for products OMP of base character.
However, despite the common features of content in erythrocytes OMP products, there are differences related to pathology, dependent on the type of the disease. It has been shown that in erythrocytes of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy the content of aldehyde and ketone neutral products was by 24 and 32 percent higher compared with the control group. The content of aldehyde and ketone products of base character exceeded the control group by 46 and 50 percent. In erythrocytes of the patients with ischemic heart disease the content of aldehyde and ketone neutral products exceeded the control group by 37 and 50 percent, the content of base products- by 76 and 70 percent, respectively. In erythrocytes of patients with erythraemia the content of neutral aldehyde and ketone products was 100 and 103 percent higher compared with the control group. The content of base OMP exceeded the control group by 110 and 290 percent. Erythrocytes of the patients with aplastic anemia showed a higher content of OMP also: by 100 and 130 percent for aldehyde and ketone products of neutral character and by 148 percent for aldehide products of base character.
It should be noted that the most pronounced changes in content of OMP products in erythrocytes of patients were traced at erythraemia and aplastic anemia, diseases of cancer character that are associated with malignant transformation of the bone marrow. However, there is a common feature: in all groups of patients more changes were shown for aldehyde and ketone products OMP of base character. Taking into account the results of our study we suggest that the processes of oxidative modification of proteins in red blood cells under conditions of disease are dependent on the type of disease and to some extent characterize the involvement of red blood cells in the pathological process. More significant differences between OMP content in erythrocytes of the patients with aplastic anemia and erythraemia may indicate that the relevant hematological diseases can be more profound biochemical changes in populations of erythroid cells, perhaps even at the early stages of their formation, and such changes should be dependent on nature of the pathological process.
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