Introduction. The regulation of life processes and maintaining functional stability of the body is due to the formation of adaptive reactions which are divided into unfavorable - distress reactions (stress, re-activation, defective adaptation) and favorable - eustress reaction (calmness and increased activation), the emergence of which depends on the state of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems, the thyroid gland in particular. Changing the functional state of the thyroid gland leads to a disturbance of protein, carbohydrate, fat metabolism, changes in erythropoiesis, imbalance of the immune system, mental disorders, which affect the degree of reactivity of the body and its adaptive capacity. Changes occur in the morphological structure and functional state of the thyroid gland in the conditions of each type of general adaptive reaction, they determine the nature of thyroid disorders, the degree of their severity. The identification of the state of adaptation in time, the detectional reaction of deviations of normal self-regulation processes of physiological functions of a body and the launch of maladaptation mechanisms becomes especially relevant in terms of violating the secretion of thyroid hormones.
Purpose. The study was aimed to determine the role of thyroid axis in shaping eustress (calm and increased activation) and distress (stress, re-activation, defective adaptation), nonspecific adaptive reactions in patients with thyroid disease.
Materials and methods. 56 patients with thyroid gland disease were examined in order to determine the adaptation index and the type of adaptive response by LH. Harkavy, levels of thyroxin and triiodothyronine were determined by the immune enzyme method using standard test systems. The results were analyzed by the methods of variational statistics and correlation analysis.
Results. Orientation, calmness and increased activation were most often detected. Eustress reactions of calmness and high activation were accompanied by the high functional activity of the thyroid gland. The response to the increased activation, which refers to the eustress, cannot be considered stable, because a decrease in the content of hormones and an increase in the index of adaptation will indicate an increase in hypothyroidism and the violation of the processes of adaptation to the development of distress. The inverse correlation of average strength indicates that the growth of the adaptation index and the approximation to the values of the re-activation reaction will be accompanied by the inhibition of thyroid hormones secretion. Therefore, patients with this adaptive reaction require special attention of a physician in terms of hypothyroidism correction, which will affect the formation of the type of adaptive response. The cumulative rate of multiple correlation between thyroid hormones and adaptation index indicates the high power of communications. Low levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in stress and re-activation with the described morphological signs of inhibition of the thyroid gland function can confirm their adverse effect on the course of the pathological process. The formation and deepening of distress reactions may be due to a decrease in the level of triiodothyronine (stress) or thyroxine (re-activation), which emphasizes the importance of correction of the thyroid state for the probable effect on adaptive processes.
Conclusions. Functional deficiency of the thyroid gland is associated with the development of distress-adaptive reactions, which may predetermine the heavier course of illness, whereas the activation of the thyroid gland function is favorable for any pathological process.
Article recieved: 05.07.2018
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