Autonomic dysfunction syndrome is a polyetiological syndrome characterized by dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and functional (inorganic) disorders by all body systems, the prevalence of which ranges from 20 to 56% of all diseases in young people. Most researchers consider heart rate variability as an integral marker that reflects the state of all the body's regulatory systems and is now considered an affordable, non-invasive, reasonably simple and relatively inexpensive method for evaluating the autonomic nervous system. The ability to correct autonomic dysfunction through diaphragmatic breathing in biological feedback using portable computer devices has been demonstrated. However, there is little scientific evidence on the use of breathing exercises in yoga to influence the functional state of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of using “pranayama” breathing exercises to correct autonomic dysfunction in young adults.
The study involved 30 healthy young foreigners aged 18 to 24 years. Heart rate variability was recorded using the CardioLab Computer Diagnostic Complex (KhAI-Medica, Ukraine) in the supine position after 10 minutes of adaptation to the registration conditions. The last 5 minutes of registration were used as background metrics. The distribution of the examined into the dependent groups was performed according to the indicators of the output tone of the activity of autonomic system’s regulation. Subsequently, for a period of 30 days, a 15-minute session of respiratory gymnastics was conducted daily, which consisted of 3 periods of 5 minutes, during which the subject performed 5-6 breathing cycles per minute. Each period was completed with 3 spontaneous breathing cycles.
The obtained numerical data were processed by the methods of variational statistics using Student's test. The dynamics of heart rate variability was assessed by pairwise comparisons, and intergroup differences were determined using one-way ANOVA.
Under the influence of a 30-day course of breathing gymnastics "pranayama" indicators of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system have undergone significant changes, in particular in groups of people with initial sympathicotonia. The overall heart rate variability according to TP at the end of the course remained higher than the background values, respectively, by 697±101ms2 (p<0.05) in the sympathotonic group and by 398 ± 95ms2 (p<0,05) in the parasympathicotonic group. Changes in TP in the sympathotonic group occurred mainly due to a decrease in the contribution of the low-frequency (VLF) heart rate regulation (by 98 ± 35ms2 (p <0,05) and a significant increase in the contribution of the high-frequency component of HF (by 682±72 ms2 (p<0,05) There were also significant changes in the structure of the heart rate spectrum according to the percentage contribution of waves of different frequencies at TP. At the end of the course in the sympathotonic group, HF% increased by 31 ± 2,4% (p < 0,01) and VLF% - decreased by 19,3 ± 3,6% (p <0,05), in the parasympathicotonic group of the significant change in the percentage contribution of different parts of the autonomic nerve this system was not detected in the TP.
Under the influence of the 30-day course of respiratory gymnastics, there is an increase in overall variability due to the suppression of central link (VLF) regulation of cardiac rhythm and increased activity of parasympathetic influences of HF in the group of sympathotonics in the redistribution of regulatory activity of the ANS between the central and peripheral chains.
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