Some studies show that obesity is associated with an increase in bone mass due to excessive mechanical stress. However, these data are contradictory, and the risk of fractures in this group is higher. Bone is a mechanosensitive tissue, its condition depends on constant mechanical effects caused by daily exercise. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high-frequency whole body vibration on the process of bone remodeling in rats with a sedentary lifestyle and high-calorie diet.
Obesity was simulated using a high-calorie diet and additional consumption of fructose. The experimental groups of rats were affected by whole body vibration with acceleration level of 0.3 g. The effect of vibration was applied for 30 minutes, 5 days a week for 24 weeks. The method of X-ray structural analysis was used to study the ultrastructure and quantify the loss of the mineral component of the femoral neck. Using X-ray diffraction, we observed an increase in the volume fraction of the crystalline phase in the group of rats that were additionally affected by whole-body vibration compared with the control and the group with obesity. The decrease in the intensity of the diffuse maximum of these samples during the experiment indicates a decrease in the content of both the crystalline and amorphous phases. At the same time, on the 24 th day there is a decrease in both the diffuse maximum and the intensity of the maxima of the crystal phase in all experimental groups. The results suggest that obesity adversely affects bone mineral mass. Whole body vibration induces an increase in the mineral component, as a result of mechanical oscillations with microdeformation of the bones. This stimulation may be a promising alternative to drug therapy for osteopenia.
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