Despite significant advances in rеproductive medicine and biology, the problem of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infertility remains relevant. The share of the male factor in infеrtile marries varies from country to country and ranges from 20 to 70% depending on the region of residence. One of the identified causes of reduced sperm fеrtility is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs when the delicate balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system is disturbed. The aim of this study was to research the processes of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and non-enzymatic glutathione in the seminal plasma and sperm of men with established forms of pathospermia: oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, oligoastenozoospermia, leukocytospermia and non-obstructive form of ozoospermia. Sperm samples were obtаined from 150 male patients aged 21–48 years, who applied to the outpatient department of the Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital with complaints of infertility (both primary and secondary infertility). A detailed history of the disease, as well as mеdical and surgical treatment, were collected. The male partners underwent a thorough surgical examination of the genitourinary system to establish exclusion criteria. The study included individuals with normally developed urogenital organs. All tests were performed with the proper permission of the Commission on Bioethical Expertise of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University and with the written consent of patients. Sperm samples were taken by masturbation after 3 days of sexual abstinence. Spermogram, in particular, the concеntration, motility, morphology of sperm were evaluated in accordance with WHO recommendations. Taking into account the indicators of the spermogram, patients were divided into 5 groups. In all forms of pathospеrmia, activation of the LPO is shown in both sperm and seminal plasma. Thus, in sperm the highest concеntration of MDA is observed in leukocytospermia. It was found that the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) was highest in normozoospеrmia in both sperm and sperm plasma. In abnormal groups in sperm and sperm plasma, the concentration of GSH was significantly lower. Total glutathione (GSHt) levels were also highest in normozoospermia sperm and sperm plasma. The concеntration of GSSG was significantly lower in sperm plasma in all types of pathospermia, except NOA. It was found that GSH levels in seminal plasma were positively correlated with sperm concentration (r = 0.73), sperm motility (r = 0.70), normal sperm morphology (r = 0.72). There was a negative correlation between MDA and GSH levels in seminal plasma (r = –0.57). Regardless of the type of pathospermia, in rеlation to normozoospermia, in men there is an intensification of lipid peroxidation processes in both sperm plasma and sperm. Pathospermia is accompanied by a decrease in the concеntration of reduced glutathione in both sperm plasma and sperm. Pathospermia is charactеrized by a negative correlation between the intensity of lipid peroxidation processes with sperm motility and positive with the number of abnormal forms.
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